Saturday, 12 January 2008

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Friday, 11 January 2008



An expression that is difficult to articulate clearly

"'rubber baby buggy bumper' is a tongue twister"

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper
A peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper
Where’s the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked?

Betty bought a bit of butter, but the butter was bitter
So Betty bought a bit better butter
To make the bitter butter better butter.

A wright has no right to write the rites of a Church.

She sells sea-shells on the sea shore.

Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you,
If you trouble trouble trouble will trouble you.

Sunshine Susie sat in solitude and isolation
sighing and singing sad songs.

A fly flew past Flo’s flat, and a fly flew past fat Flo
Is the fly that flew past fat Flo,
the same fly that flew past Flo’s flat ?

A glasgow glazier’s glorious gleaming green glass gasglobes.

A glowing gleam glowing green.

A jester from Leicester went to see Esther,
But as Esther was taking her siesta,

The jester from Leicester didn’t see Esther.

A lovely large labrador licked Linda lovingly.

A maid with a duster, made a furious bluster dusting a bust in the hall.

When the bust it was dusted the bust it was busted, the bust it was dust, that’s all.

An artist went to sea to see what he could see at sea to draw,
But all the artist saw at sea was, what we always see at sea — sea, see?

A purely rural duel truly plural is beter than a purely plural duel truly rural.

A queer quick questioning quiz.

A selfish shellfish smelt a stalefush.

If the stale fish was a smelt then the selfish shellfish smelt a smelt.

A sick sparrow sand six sad spring songs sitting sheltering under a squat shrub.

Chelsi’s chilly cheap chip shop sells Chelsi’s cheap chips.

Cheerful charles chose cherry chocolates for Cheri.

Cliff Cross crossed the criss-cross crossing
The criss-cross crossing Cliff Cross crossed
When Cliff Cross crossed the criss-cross crossing
Where’s the criss-cross crossing Cliff Cross crossed ?

Cook cooked a cup of cold creamy custard.

Crazy cooks cut chunky chips for cheeky chaps.

Double bubbles Double bubble gums
But the bubble that Double bubbles
Doubles whenever Double bubbles.

Educated Elia’s elephant enjoys everyting elegant.

Five fashionable females flying to France for fresh French fashions.

Five frantic fat frogs fled from fifty fierce fishes.

Forty fat farmers fought over a field of fine fresh fodder.

Four famous fishermen found for flounders—flippers flapping
furiously— faithfully following four floppy female flatfish.

George Gibbs grabs crabs, crabs George Gibbs grabs.

If George Gibbs grabs crabs,
Where are the crabs George Gibbs grabed ?

Good, better, best, never let it rest
Till your good is better, and your better is the best.

How many cans can a caner can, if a canner can can cans?

A canner can can as many cans as a canner can,
if a canner can can cans.

How many cuckoos could a good cook cook , if a cook could cook cuckoos?

If neither he sells seashells, nor she sells seashells,
Who shall sell seashells? Shall seashells be sold?

I saw a saw in Warsaw and of all the saws I ever saw,
I never saw like the saw I saw in Warsaw.

Is it not right to light a night light on a light night like tonight ?

I snuff shop snuff. Do you snuff shop sunff ?

Sheep should not sleep in a sleek shack:

Sheep should sleep on a sheepy sack

Six silly sisters sell silk to six sickly senior citizens.

Some say sweet-scented shaving soap soothes sore skins.

Ten tiny tortoises talk to twenty timid toads.

The busy bee buzzed busily around the busy beehive.

The drain in the train dripped again and agin,

Ten tiny tortoises talk to twenty timid toads.

The busy bee buzzed busily around the busy beehive.

The drain in the train dripped again and agin,
until the drain in the train dripped dry.

The librarian lent his literacy list to the Latin master to select lenghthy lessons.

They thanked them thoroughly.

They threw three thick things.

Thirty thrifty whistling washers witchingly whistling, wishing washing was washed.

This crisp crust crackless crunchily.

Twenty tinkers took two hundred tintacks to Toy Town.
If twenty tinkers took two hundred tintacks to Toy Town,
How many tintacks to Toy Town did each of the twenty tinkers going to Toy Town take?

Typing ten-times-tables takes more time than typing ten-times-two.

Who washed Washington’s white woollen underwear when
Washington’s washer woman went West?

Willf Willie Wilkins be willing to wish Willis welcome words?

You can have fried fresh fish, fish fried fresh,
Fresh fried fish, fresh fish fried, or fish fresh fried.

A notable doctor was not able to operate because he had no table.

Bedre Manjunath

Bedre Foundation for Non-Formal Education, Research and Training




A condensed but memorable saying embodying some important fact of experience that is taken as true by many people.

Please complete the proverb.

1. A bird in the hand is_______________. (worth two in the bush.)
2. A crowd is_____________________. (no company.)
3. A drowning man ________________. (will catch at a straw.)
4. A full purse ____________________. (never lacks friends.)
5. All that glitters__________________. (is not gold.)
6. Blood is _______________________. (thicker than water.)
7. New broom_____________________. (sweeps well.)
8. No smoke______________________. (without fire.)
9. Where there is a will ____________. (there is a way.)
10. Well begun is ___________________. (half done.)

Please complete the proverb.

1. ________________ needs no paint. (A good face........)
2. ________________ has no legs. (A lie has .............)
3. ________________ is the devil’s workshop. (An idle brain .....)
4. ________________ so is the son. (As is the father ,..)
5. ________________ so we reap. (As we sow ,..........)
6. ________________ than never. (Better late...........)
7. ________________ next to Godliness. (Cleanliness is.....)
8. ________________ according to your cloth. (Cut your coat .....)
9. ________________ stone walls. (Hunger breaks ...)
10. ________________ not built in a day. (Rome was ...........)

Read these proverbs:

1. A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
2. A cracked bell can never sound well.
3. A stitch in time saves nine.
4. A penny saved is a penny gained.
5. An ounce of practice is worth tons of theory.
6. Beggars must not be choosers.
7. Conversation teaches more than meditation.
8. Dead men tell no tales.
9. Drink nothing without seeing it, sign nothing without reading it.
10. Empty vessels make more much noise.
11. Experience is the mother of wisdom.
12. Familiarity breeds contempt.
13. Give neither counsel not salt, till you are asked for it.
14. Hasty climbers have sudden falls.
15. He who would climb the ladder, must begin at the bottom.
16. Idleness is the root of all evil.
17. Jack of all trades is master of none.
18. Keep your mouth shut and eyes open.
19. Life is half spent before we know what it is.
20. Make hay while the sun shines.
21. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
22. Nothing is impossible to a willing heart.
23. Adversity is the touching stone of character.
24. Failures are stepping stones to success.
25. Penny wise and pound foolish.
26. Procrastination is the thief of time.
27. The true university of these days is a good collection of books.
28. Where there is a will there is way.
29. Prevention is better than cure.
30. What sculpture is to a piece of marble, education is to the soul.

1. Rome was not built in a day

Rome, the greatest city of the ancient world, did not achieve its glory all of a sudden. It took several years to build Rome, and bring it to the state of pomp and splendour. The same is true of every great achievement. When we with to do a great thing, we cannot expect success in a moment. We should carry on our work with patience and perseverance. Achievements of great moment cannot be accomplished without patient perseverance and a considerable interval of time.

2. A friend in need is a friend indeed

When a man is wealthy and prosperous, he usually has numerous friends, but all of them are not true friends. Most of them love him only to gain their selfish ends. They desert him the moment he loses his wealth and prosperity. True friends are those who continue to keep close to a man when his fortunes have turned over. A real friend sympathises with us in our troubles and helps us in adversity.

3. Strike while the iron is hot

A blacksmith should strike the horse-shoe while the iron is red hot, or he cannot mould it into shape. That is to say, we should act while the impulse is still fervent. The man who puts off till tomorrow what he should do today can never do it. We should avail ourselves of the opportunities that come our way. If we allow an opportunity to slip away, we cannot get it back. Therefore, we should do what we wish to do at the right time.
(Courtesy : Rapid Review of English Grammar by NDV Prasad Rao)

Our Motto

"Practice makes a man perfect."



Hello Friends!
Do you know what Kangaroo is? Well, it is a large Australian mammal with a long stiff tail, short front legs and long powerful back legs on which it moves by jumping. Kangaroo is a marsupial, a type of mammal which is not completely developed when it is born and is carried around in a pocket on the mother's body where it is fed and protected until it is completely developed. But do you know what the word "Kangaroo" means? "Don’t know?" Strange! That is the answer! When the European travellers asked the aborigins, natives of Australia, about the animal which was hopping around the natives replied "Kangaroo!" i.e., they don’t know. The wise travellers took it to be the word for the name of the animal and started calling the animal by that name itself! Kangaroos carry their joeys in their pouches. What is a Kangaroo Word? A "Kangaroo Word" is one which carries within its spelling, in normal order, a smaller word which is a perfect synonym for itself.



AMEND _______________MEND




BLOSSOMS _____________BLOOMS

CALUMINES ____________LIES

CAPABLE ______________ABLE

CATACOMB ____________TOMB

CONTAINER ____________CAN

CURTAIL ______________CUT

DECEASED _____________DEAD


DEVILISH _____________EVIL








ESPY ________________SPY

ESQUIRE _____________SQUIRE


EXIST ________________IS


FACADE _______________FACE

FEASTS _______________EATS

FESTIVAL _____________FEAST



HOSTELRY _____________HOTEL

HUMAN _______________MAN

HURRIES ______________HIES


INDOLENT ____________IDLE

JOVIALITY ____________JOY


MARKET ______________MART

MASCULINE ____________MALE

MATCHES ______________MATES

MEADOW ______________MEAD

MILITARY _____________ARMY

OBSERVE ______________SEE

OMNIBUS ______________BUS



PERIMETER _____________RIM

PERIWIG _______________WIG

PINIONED ______________PINNED

PRATTLE _______________PRATE


PROSECUTE _____________SUE

RAMPAGE ______________RAGE


REGULATES _____________RULES

RESPITE ________________REST


ROTOUND _______________ROUND

SALVAGE ________________SAVE

SATISFIED _______________SATED

SEPARATE _______________PART

SIGNAL _________________SIGN

SLITHERED ______________SLID

SPLOTCHES ______________SPOTS


SURPEME ________________SUPER

TELEPHONE ______________PHONE


WEALTH _________________WEAL


Top Ten Longest Words in the Oxford English Dictionary

Top Ten Longest Words

in the Oxford English Dictionary

1. pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis _____45

2. supercalifragilisticexpialidocious _______________34

3. pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism _____________30

4. floccinaucinihilipilification ___________________29

4. triethylsulphonemethylmethane ______________29

5. antidisestablishmentarianism _______________28

5. octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane _______________28

5. tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin _______________28

6. hepaticocholangiogastronomy _______________27

7. radioimmunoelectrophoresis _______________26

7. radiommunoelectrophoretic _______________26

Words that are hyphenatned, including such compound words as "transformational-generative" and " tristhio-dimethyl-benzaldehyde", have not been included. Only one unhyphenated word did not make it into the Top 10, the 25-letter "psychophysicotherapeutics". After this, there is a surprisingly large number of words containing 20-24 letters (radioimmunoprecipitation, spectrophotofluorometric, thyroparathyroidectomize, hypergammaglobulinaemia, roentgenkymographically and immunosympathectomized, for example) -- few of which are ever used by anyone except scientists and crossword compilers.

- Bedre N. Manjunath M.A.,

Transmission Executive,

All India Radio F.M. CHITRADURGA - 577 501,

KARNATAKA Ph: 94485-89089

Homonyms, Homophones, Homographs

Homonyms, Homophones, Homographs


noun [C] a word that sounds the same or is spelled the same as another word but has a different meaning: e.g., ‘Bow’ (= bend at the waist) and ‘bow’ (= weapon) are also homonyms. RIGHT- RIGHT















1. The BAT cannot use the BAT and ball.

2. We can use our NAILS to pick the NAILS.

3. That was a RIGHT dicision to turn the knob to the RIGHT.

4. She turned LEFT and then LEFT her bag there in the corner.

5. No one feels WELL when one falls into a WELL.

6. I cannot BEAR the weight of that huge BEAR.


noun [C] a word which is spelled the same as another word and might be pronounced the same or differently, but which has a different meaning: e.g., ‘Bow’ meaning the front of a ship, ‘bow’ meaning a loop made in a string or ribbon and ‘bow’ meaning a device used to shoot arrows are all homographs.



bow -- bow

close -- close

content -- content


convert-- convert

desert-- desert

lead --lead

minute --minute

object --object

produce --produce

project --project


refuse --refuse

row --row

tear -- tear

used -- used

wind --wind

wound --wound


noun [C] a word which is pronounced the same as another word but has a different meaning or a different spelling or both: e.g., ‘so’ and ‘sew’ are homophones.

Write - Rite Wright - Right

Sea - See

Two - Too

Weak - Week

Ear - Year

Here - Hear

Dose - Doze

Sell - Cell

Storey - Story

Hare - Hair

Pray - Prey

Meat - Meet

I - Eye

Principle - Principal

Sight - Cite

Weigh - Way

Steel - Steal

Son - Sun

Nail - Nile

Mind - Mined

Sent - Scent

Sail - Sale

Site - Sight etc.

accessary ---accessory
accessible ---assessable
adapt ---adopt
advice ---advise
aid ---aide
all ---awl
allay ---alley
allowed ---aloud
altar ---alter
ant ---aunt
antic ---antique
attach ---attache
bail ---bale
bare--- bear
bate ---bait
be ---bee
bean--- been
beat ---beet
berth ---birth
boar ---bore
board ---bored
boy ---buoy
brake ---break
brows ---browse
but ---butt
canvas ---canvass
carat ---carrot
caught ---court
cell ---sell
check ---cheque
clause ---claws
coarse ---course
complement ---compliment
concert ---consort
creak--- creek
dairy ---diary
days ---daze
dear--- deer
defer ---differ
desert ---dessert
device--- devise
die ---dye
doe ---dough
does ---doze
envelop ---envelope
extant ---extent
fain ---feign
fair ---fare
faun ---fawn
feat ---feet
find--- fined
flea ---flee
franc--- frank
gait ---gate
gilt ---guilt
grate ---great
hair ---hare
heel ---heal
hoarse--- horse
hole ---whole
hour ---our
humorous ---humerus
idle ---idol
in ---inn
jealous ---zealous
knead--- need
knot--- not
know--- no
leak--- leek
lean ---lien
least--- list
lie ---lye
lief ---leaf
loan--- lone
main ---mane
maize ---maze
male ---mail
mask ---mosque
meat--- meet
mind--- mined
mode ---mowed
naval--- navel
none ---nun
one ---won
pail ---pale
pain ---pane
pair ---pare
peace ---piece
peak ---peek
peal ---peel
pearl ---purl
peer--- pier
pray--- prey
queue ---cue
quiet--- quite
racket--- racquet
rain ---reign
rain ---rein
raise--- rise
read ---reed
real ---reel
rest ---wrest
road ---rode
rye ---wry
sale ---sail
sauce ---source
scene--- seen
seam ---seem
sell ---cell
sent ---scent
sever ---severe
sole--- soul
sort ---sought
stair ---stare
steal ---steel
story ---storey
suite ---sweet
tail ---tale
trail ---trial
troop ---troupe
urn ---earn
vain ---vane
warn ---worn
wail ---whale
waist--- waste
wait ---weight
weak--- week
weather ---whether
wet ---whet
wreath ---wreathe
wring--- ring
yew ---you

(Please do refer a good dictionary for the meanings of the words given here.) -

Bedre N. Manjunath M.A.,

Transmission Executive,

All India Radio F.M.

CHITRADURGA - 577 501, KARNATAKA Ph: 94485-89089

Short Message (Messaging) Service

Short Message (Messaging) Service

@ --------at
ADN --------any day now
AFAIK --------as far as I know
ATB --------all the best
B --------be
BBL --------be back late(r)
BCNU --------be seeing you
BFN --------bye for now
B4 --------before
BRB --------be right back
BTW --------by the way
BWD --------backwardz
C --------see
CU --------see you
CUL8R --------see you later
F2F --------face to face
F2T --------free to talk
FWD --------forward
FWIW --------for what it’s worth
FYI --------for your information
GAL --------get a life
GR8 --------great
HAND --------have a nice day
H8 --------hate
HTH --------hope this helps
IC I --------see
ILUVU --------I love you
IMHO --------in my humble opinion
IMO --------in my opinion
IOW --------in other words
JIC --------just in case
JK --------just kidding
KIT --------keep in touch
KWIM --------know what I mean?
L8 --------late
L8R --------later
LOL --------lots of luck /laughing out loud
MOB --------mobile
MSG --------message
MYOB --------mind your own business
NE --------any
NE1 --------anyone
NO1 --------no one
OIC --------oh, I see
OTOH --------on the other hand
PCM --------please call me
PLS --------please
PPL --------people
R --------are
RU --------are you
RUOK --------are you okay?
SIT --------stay in touch
SOM1 --------someone
SPK --------speak
THKQ --------thank you
TTYL --------talk to you later
TX --------thanks
U --------you
UR --------you are
WAN2 --------want to
WAN2TLK --------want to talk?
WERV U BIN --------where have you been?
W/ --------with
WKND --------weekend
WOT --------what
WU --------what’s up?
X --------kiss
XLNT --------excellent
XOXOX --------hug and kisses
YR --------your

1 --------one
2 --------to, too, two
2DAY --------today
2MORO --------tomorrow
2NITE --------tonight
3SUM --------threesum
4 --------for


:-) --------I’m happy ( a smily)
:~( --------I am unhappy
:-X --------my lips are sealed
:-Q --------I don’t understand
;-) --------I’m winking
X= --------Fingers crossed
:-P --------I’m sticking my tongue out
:-D --------I’m laughing
:-( --------I’m crying
:-/ --------I’m sceptical
:-o --------I’m surprised



We will begin with BOX and the plural is BOXES
But the plural of OX should be OXEN and not OXES.
Then one fowl is GOOSE but two are GEESE
Yet the plural of MOUSE should never be MEESE.
You may find a lone MOUSE or a whole set of MICE
But the plural of HOUSE is HOUSES not HICE.
If the plural of MAN be always MEN
Why shouldn’t the plural of PAN be PEN?
If I speak of a FOOT and then you show me your FEET
And I give you a BOOT, would a pair be called BEET?
If one is TOOTH, and a whole set is TEETH
Why should not the plural of BOOTH be BEETH?
Then one may be THAT and three may be THOSE
Yet HAT in the plural would never be HOSE
And the plural of CAT is CATS not COSE.
We speak of a BROTHER and also a BRETHREN
But alothough we say MOTHER we never say MOTHREN.
Then the masculine pronouns are HE, HIS and HIM
But imagine the feminine SHE, SHIS and SHIM.
So, English, I fancy, you will agree, is the
FUNNIEST LANGUAGE you ever did see!

- Leo Angela Rupert