Monday, 24 December 2007



A word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other.

1. Busy ___X___ lazy, inactive
2. Dark ___X___ light, bright
3. Brave ___X___ fearful, coward
4. Open ___X___ closed, hidden
5. Show ___X___ hide, conceal
6. Useful ___X___ useless, waste
7. Bold _____X___ shy, timid
8. Expand ___X___ contract, precise
9. Friend ___X___ enemy, foe


im + proper = improper
in + ability = inability
mis + judge = misjudge
mis + understand = misunderstand
ir + regular = irregular
un + important = unimportant
dis + belief = disbelief
dis + appear = disappear etc.


agree _____X___ disagree
comfort _____X___ discomfort
continue _____X___ discontinue
encourage _____X___ discourage
allow _____X___ disallow
loyal _____X___ disloyal
obey _____X___ disobey
connect _____X___ disconnect
honest _____X___ dishonest
like _____X___ dislike

mature _____X___ immature
partial _____X___ impartial
patient _____X___ impatient
probable _____X___ improbable
mortal _____X___ immortal
moral _____X___ immoral
pure _____X___ impure

accurate _____X___ inaccurate
adequate _____X___ inadequate
visible _____X___ invisible
complete _____X___ incomplete
gratitude _____X___ ingratitude
efficient _____X___ inefficient
discipline _____X___ indiscipline
valid _____X___ invalid
direct _____X___ indirect
credible _____X___ incredible

luck _____X___ illuck
logical _____X___ illogical
legible _____X___ illegible
legal _____X___ illegal
literate _____X___ illiterate

co-operation _____X___ non co-operation
vegetarian _____X___ non-vegetarian
violence _____X___ non-violence

regular _____X___ irregular
responsible _____X___ irresponsible
relevant _____X___ irrelevant

fortune _____X___ misfortune
manage _____X___ mismanage
interpret _____X___ misinterpret

able _____X___ unable
just _____X___ unjust
happy _____X___ unhappy
grateful _____X___ ungrateful
necessary _____X___ unnecessary
pleasant _____X___ unpleasant
popular _____X___ unpopular
natural _____X___ unnatural
educated _____X___ uneducated
equal _____X___ unequal
fortunate _____X___ unfortunate
healthy _____X___ unhealthy
kind _____X___ unkind
usual _____X___ unusual
safe _____X___ unsafe
wholesome _____X___ unwholesome
official _____X___ unofficial
conscious _____X___ unconscious
civilized _____X___ uncivilized
even _____X___ uneven
done _____X___ undone
fair _____X___ unfair


strong _____X___ weak
proud _____X___ humble
ancient _____X___ modern
noble _____X___ ignoble
hard _____X___ soft
rough _____X___ smooth / soft
internal _____X___ external
long _____X___ short
fertile _____X___ barren
forget _____X___ remember
brave / ly _____X___ coward / ly
artificial _____X___ natural
always _____X___ seldom / never
heavy _____X___ light
increase _____X___ decrease
reward _____X___ punishment
construction _____X___ destruction
permanent _____X___ temporary
exuberant _____X___ sparse
sorrow _____X___ joy
portable _____X___ fixed
expand _____X___ contract
high _____X___ low
clockwise _____X___ anticlockwise


We can form the opposite of the word ‘respect’ by adding the prefix:
A. un~ ____B. mis~ ____C. ir~ ____D. dis~

Owls are active at night. The opposite of ‘active’ :

A. cold ____B. passive ____C. inactive ____D. lazy

Bullock carts are ancient means of transportation.

What is the opposite word for ‘ancient’.
A. ultra modern ____B. modern ____C. fancy ____D. dizzy


We should always walk on the pavement and never in the middle of the road.

It looks like a natural flower, but it is an artificial one.

Our headmaster approved the proposal of setting up a science club but disapproved starting a recreation club.

It is possible to count the number of people in a place, but impossible to count the number of stars in the sky.

Now-a-days we find TV in almost every house. But having a T.V. has both advantages and disadvantages.

Every problem whether it is major or minor has a solution.

Violence which is in existence everywhere these days is almost non existent in Soligas community.

Be polite. Nobody likes you if you are impolite.

Urban life is not as happy as rural life.

The question papers is not difficult, but easy.

Is he still alive? I think, he is dead.

Remember the good; forget the bad.

The plastic is light but the steel is heavy.

I am neither superior nor inferior to you.

The birth rate is increasing and the death rate decreasing.

John is strong, but his brother is weak.

All are equal. None is high and none is low.

Due to over cropping fertile lands have become barren.

War is not a pleasant subject, it is an unpleasant one.



One of two or more words or expressions of the same language that have the same or nearly the same meaning in some or all senses.

Match the following words in the list "A" with their meanings given in the list "B"

_____A ____________B ________ANSWERS

1. Treasure _________a. dress ______1 - h
2. Nice ____________b. useless _____2 - d
3. haunt ___________c. cruel _______3 - j
4. feeble ___________d. pleasant ____4 - o
5. stain ____________e. fine _______5 - m
6. crook____________ f. take no notice of __6 - l
7. attire ____________g. discover ____7 - a
8. pretty ____________h. wealth_____ 8 - e
9. in vain ___________i. deeply religious ___9 - b
10. ignore___________ j. visit a place often _10 - f
11. hamlet ___________k. exact ______11 - n
12. savage ___________l. dishonest ____12 - c
13. detect ___________m. dirty marks __13 - g
14. accurate _________n. a small village __14 - k
15. pious ___________o. weak ________15 - i


ABILITY ______capability, capacity, cleverness
ACTIVE ______busy, brisk, energetic, lively, vigorous
AGREE ______accept, admit, consent, unite, tally
ALL ______whole, entire, total
ANGER ______fury, irritation, rage, wrath
BAD ______corrupt, dishonest, evil, false, imperfect
BATTLE ______conflict, combat, contest, fight
BEAUTIFUL ______elegant, graceful, pretty, handsome
BOUNDARY ______border, limit, edge, verge, frontier
BRAVE ______daring, fearless, bold, courageous
BUSY ______active, deli gent, occupied, industrious
CALM ______mild, pacific, peaceful, cool, quiet
CATCH ______clutch, secure, seize, capture, grasp
CLEAN ______purify, sweep, wipe, wash, cleanse
CLEAR ______plain, definite, evident, explicit
CORRECT ______accurate, exact, precise, right
COSTLY ______expensive, valuable, dear, priceless
CRUDE ______rude, rough, raw, green
DANGER ______peril, risk, hazard
DELIGHT ______pleasure, joy, enjoyment, mirth
DEAD ______defunct, deceased, late, lifeless
DEPART ______leave, retire, go, clear out, withdraw
DIFFERENCE ______unlikeness, dissimilarity, variation
DO ______execute, perform, achieve, carryout
EDUCATION ______learning, culture, study, training, knowledge
EFFICIENT ______effective, potent, active
END ______tip, destruction, finish, conclusion
ENEMY ______rival, foe, opponent, adversary
FAME ______glory, reputation, eminence, honour
FAVOUR ______grace, approval, benefit, regard, boon
FORTUNATE ______lucky, prosperous, successful, happy
FRIENDLY ______cordial, affectionate, devoted, loving
GOOD ______right, worthy, valid, useful, admirable
GRAND ______magnificent, imposing, stately, noble
GRIEF ______sorrow, anguish, woe, regret, distress
HARD ______solid, firm, difficult, arduous, rough
HATE ______dislike, detest, abhor, loathe
HEAVY ______weighty, loaded, afflicting, ponderous
HELP ______assist, aid, champion, promote, improve
HONOURABLE ______esteemed, respected, upright, eminent
IDEAL ______standard, model, pattern, perfect, type
IMMEDIATE ______instantly, now, presently, at once
IRREGULAR ______erratic, fitful abnormal, disorderly
JEALOUS ______envious, suspicious, covetous, apprehensive
LARGE ______big, great, immense, huge, excessive
LIBERATE ______free, discharge, release, detach, rescue
LIKE ______prefer, admire, love relish, fancy
LOVE ______affection, friendship, liking, regard
MAD ______lunatic, insane, crazy, irrational
MIND ______intellect, brain, reason, sense, spirit
MYSTERIOUS ______secret, enigmatic, unknown, occult
NEW ______novel, modern, original, fresh, renovated
OBVIOUS ______clear, evident, plain, open, apparent
OLD ______aged, ancient, venerable, mature
OMIT ______overlook, neglect, ignore, drop, exclude
OPEN ______exposed, unclosed, frank, plain, obvious
OWN ______have, possess, hold, keep, concede
PAIN ______ache, agony, anguish, suffering, pang
PASSIVE ______inactive, idle, inert, receptive
PERFECT ______whole, entire, intact, finish
PITY ______compassion, mercy, sympathy, humanity
PRECISE ______exact, accurate, strict, correct, perfect
PREJUDICE ______bias, partiality, unfairness
PREFER ______choose, select, elect, pick, opt
PURE ______clear, chaste, genuine, innocent
RARE ______scarce, dainty, exquisite, elegant
REDUCE ______decrease, lessen, abate, shorten
REFRESH ______renew, restore, rejuvenate, regain
RELEVANT ______material, pertinent, applicable, allied
REST ______comfort, ease, leisure, peace, repose
SCHOLAR ______learner, pupil, student, disciple
SELECTION ______choice, preference, discrimination
SHOW ______demonstrate, manifest, disclose
SERIOUS ______grave, dangerous, earnest, important
SKILLFUL ______clever, accomplished, adept
SINGLE ______sole, lone, separate, individual
SLOW ______dilatory, leisurely, inert, dull, slack
STRONG ______sturdy, tough, healthy,
SURE ______certain, positive, decisive, assured
TAME ______subdued,, submissive, docile, meek
TEMPORARY ______transient, brief, short, provisional
THICK ______stubby, stocky, dense, turbid
TIE ______fasten, attach, unite, bind, secure
TRUTH ______authenticity, honesty, reality, verity
UTILITY ______benefit, profit, service, avail
VICE ______faulty, frailty, offence, scandal
WARM ______tender, sympathetic, loving, affectionate
WISDOM ______judgement, foresight, learning, reason
WORSHIP ______veneration, homage, respect, adoration
WRONG ______false, misleading, bad
YIELD ______surrender, cede, generate, fore go, resign
ZEAL ______fervour, spirit, enthusiasm, energy, zest



A conjunctin is a word or phrase which link two words, phrases or clauses.

Co-ordinating :

and, but, for, or, also, yet, still, either...or, neither...nor, both....and, not only.....but also, as well as, etc.

Sub-ordinating :

though, although, because, since, as, that, while, unless, even if, after, neverethe less,lest, in case, so....that, as if, as long as, what, where, when, why, which, how, who, whom, whose, etc.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions

The boy is intelligent —————lazy.
A. and ___B. or ___C. because ___D. but

It can be white, black————grey.
A. but ___B. and ___C. nor ___D. or

The man is short tempered ———— people like him.
A. but ___B. yet ___C. and ___D. so

She is not only intelligent————industrious.
A. but also ___B. but ___C. also ___D. and also

The question looks ———— it is difficult.
A. but ___B. yet ___C. and ___D. so

I did my homework ———— then went out to play.
A. but ___B. yet ___C. and ___D. so

Sarabhai knew ———— space science could help many areas of importansce.
A. but ___B. that ___C. and ___D. so

Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions

There are three or four who can be called great but Chandrashekhar votes for Rahul Dravid.

I would be sentenced if I am caught.

I would be grateful to you if you would get me a small bundle of cotton.

Go back, or I’ll horsewhip you.

I firmly believe that ODIs can never replace test cricket.

I have neither gone mad nor have I been upto any mischief.

Remember not gun powder but a letter.

Vikram left for England and joined St. John’s College.

The newspaper proclaimed samiji, a prophet and a seer.

If your Majesty permits me, I can try to solve the problem.

Tell me if there is no one who has an answer.

The whole court is stunned and looks at Daksha.

You could give it if you liked; but you are fond of asking impertinent questions.

I won’t give you any letter unless I know you are the servant of Squire Egan.

The teachers are kind and affectionate.

When he returned to India, Vikram joined the IIS at Bangalore.

The West Indians tried to hit him off the gound but did not succeed and therefore decided to play as he came.

Newspaper used to report that Chandrashekar could not face fast bowlers.

If you refuse to handover the car, I will cancel its registration.

Kashibai’s reply made him so angry that the collector cancelled the registration.

The police would always try hard to assert Shakuntala but in vain.

If I am caught, I would be sentenced to imprisonment.

The two women told him that India had attained freedom and the British oppressors had no place in India.

How can we find out if a person or a society is barbarous or civilized?

Examples from Previous Question Papers

"I wish it had lasted, so we could have had another dinner here.

Twenty years is a long time, but not long enough to change a man’s nose. (since, so, but, before)

Science has everything for man’s need but not for his greed.

Somehow I couldn’t do it myself. So I got a plainclothesman to do the job. (or, so, until, but)

I sat back and observed them. They could not understand every word but they would get the general import of my remarks. (so, but, since, and)

Japanese radar operators detected three more aircrafts approach ing Hiroshima at a high altitude but these were presumed to be reconnaissance planes, and there was no second alert. (and, but, or, which)

The policeman twirled his club and took a step or two. (but, and, because, or)

Her eyes were black with anger and humiliation, but she stood up and walked out. (and, or, but, because)

They tied dad up and doped him.Jimmy will meet me if he is alive. (when, if, and, or)

You must set the standard in the things for the rest of the school for the younger ones will ape everything you do and say. ( that, and, or, for)

A man who is strong and tough, never needs to show in his dress or the way he cuts his hair. (that, or, and, but)

The policeman twirled his club and took a step or two.
(so, and, though, or)

The man from the west stopped suddenly and released his arm.
You may catch them if you are quick. ( because, or, and, but, if, that)

Wait here until I come back. (but, when, until, if)

When Elizabeth was twenty , she married Joseph Fry.
( but, when, until, if)

The tumult died down when she spoke. ( as, when, because)

Its inhabitants expected trouble because Hiroshima was a major military post. (for, because, and)

I am am the one you should criticize if I fail to maintain the stand ards I demand. ( and, if, so)

It has not only stopped attcking people but even makes way for them. ( nor, though, but)

Tapan is popular and respected by his companions.
Address me as ‘Mr. Braithwaite’ or ‘Sir’ (and, or, but, that)

Pamela Dare’s eyes were black with anger and humiliation, but she stood up and walked out. (or, and, but, because)



A figure of speech is a deviation from the ordinary use of words, so that the effect of the words is heightened. When figurative language is introduced it contributes powerfully to increase understanding.


A definite expression of a likeness between objects of different kind or species. It is usually introduced by words of comparison such as, ‘like’, ‘so’, and ‘as’

e.g., World is like a stage.

He is as swift as wind.


A metaphor is an implied simile or comparison. It is a figure of speech in which hidden comparisons between two objects of different kinds, having at least one point in common. Here the comparison is not openly expressed or stated and it has to be inferred.

e.g., All the world is a stage -In which all men and women are merely players.

Tippu was the tiger of Mysore.


This is a figure of speech in which inanimate objects are spoken of as if they are alive ( having life and intelligence).

e.g., Death leaped on the beautiful deer.Love came to Flora asking for a flower.


Harsh and unpleasant facts expressed indirectly in a mild and less unpleasant manner.

e.g, He attained the lotus feet of the Lord. ( i.e., He died.)

Find out the figure of speech employed

"As shines a moon in clouded skies, she in her poor attire was seen"
A. simile _________B. metaphor

C. personification _________D. alliteration

"Like a hurt bitch, she bared her teeth".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"He hides a smiling face".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"Tippu fought against the British like a tiger.".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"Tippu was a tiger".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"Her voice is as sweet as that of the nightingale".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"Young men are the salt of the nation".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"Death lays his icy hands on the kings".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"God rides upon the storm".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"My mother, black prolific earth mother".
A. personification _________B. metaphor

C. simile _________D. alliteration

"........ my laugh in the mirror shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs"
A. simile _________B. metaphor

C. personification _________D. alliteration

"She groaned, closed her eyes, never opened them again"
A. simile _________B. metaphor

C. euphemism _________D. alliteration

"Like a hurt bitch, she bared her teeth"
A. simile _________B. metaphor

C. personification _________D. alliteration

Tippu fought against the British like a tiger. _________Simile

Tippu was a tiger. _________Metaphor

Her voice is as sweet as that of the nightingale. _________Simile

Young men are the salt of the nation. _________Metaphor

Death lays his icy hands on the kings. _________Personification

God plans his foot steps in the sea. _________Personification

God rides upon the storm. _________Personification

God hides a smiling face. _________Personification

My mother, black prolific earth mother. _________Metaphor

Like a hurt bitch, she bared her teeth. _________Simile

........ my laugh in the mirror shows only my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs. _________Simile

She groaned, closed her eyes, never opened them again. _________Euphemism

Examples from Previous Question Papers

As sweet and dry was the ground / As tobacco dust.
a. Personification _________b. Metaphor

c. Simile _________ d. Euphemism

Death leaped on the beautiful wild deer.
a. Metaphor _________b. Simile

c. Personification _________d. Irony

Till suddenly Death leaped on the beautiful deer.
a. Simile _________b. Personification

c. Metaphor _________d. Irony

I am not as strong as my Grandmother.
a. Metaphor _________b. Simile

c. Personification _________d. Hyperbole

The moon slides down the stair / To see who’s there!
a. Simile _________b. Metaphor

c. Personification _________d. Hyperbole

Like an ingrate, I left my friend.
a. Personification _________b. Simile

c. Metaphor _________ d. Metanomy

Ghost-like I paced round the haunts of my childhood.
a. Metaphor _________b. Personification _________c. Simile

Summer has spread a cool, green tent.
a. Metaphor _________b. Simile _________c. Personification

I am not as strong as my grandmother.
a. Metaphor _________b. Personification _________c. Simile

"The wind slipped through the leaves as if afraid.........."
a. Personification _________b. Metaphor _________c. Simile

"The wind slipped through the leaves as if afraid.........."
a. Metaphor _________b. Simile _________c.Personification

"I who am Death shall haunt your children.
a. Personification _________b. Metaphor _________c. Simile

Content and health can sleep without the power of wealth.
a. Simile _________b. Personification _________c. Metaphor



A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relationship the person or thing denoted by it stands in relatin to something else. Prepositions indicate relationship in time and space.

Simple Preposition :

Simple prepositions are single syllable words. These words show :
Location : at, by, in, on, near
Direction : to, from, down, through, out, up
Asssociation : of, for, with, like

Compound Preposition:

Compound prepositions are two syllable words.
e.g.,about, above, across, after, along, amidst, among, around, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, within, without, etc.

Phrase Preposition :

Phrase prepositions are groups of words functioning as prepositions.

e.g., according to, along with, away from, becasue of, by reason of, by means of, by virtue of, for the sake of, in accordance with, in addition to,in comparision to, in course of, in favour of, in front of, in in lieu of, in order to, in place of, in regard to, in spite of, in stead of, in the event of, in way of, on account of, owing to, with a view to, with an eye to, with reference to, with regard to, etc.

Participle Preposition :

Participle prepositions are Present Participle (v+ing) form of the verb functioning as prepositions.
e.g., barring, concerning, considering, notwithstanding, pending, regarding, respectiong, etc.


OF is used to show :

e.g., After two years of marriage she had a child.

e.g., The plays of Shakespeare.
The people of Chitradurga.

e.g., She was full of joy.
He is afraid of girls.

e.g., She is the sister of Chayapathi.
This is the first of May.

e.g., A piece of chalk.
Samarth drank a litre of milk.
Sheela sang a number of devotional songs.

AT is used to show :

e.g., The train is at the platform.
Suma lives at Chatnahally.

e.g., He always looks at girls.
Shobha is looking at you.

3. TIME :
e.g., Please, come at 5 O’clock.
I married at the age at 25.

ON is used to show :

e.g., People go to temples on Tuesdays.
My birthday is on the 10th of June.
Visitors come to the Fort on Sundays.

e.g., The newspaper is on the floor. The book is on the table.
The teacher is writing a poem on the board.

e.g., Samarth has written a book on Quizzics.
Spoorthy has done research on rice.

IN is used to show :

e.g., The children play in the street.
Geetha has a stick in her hand.

e.g., The club members come here in the evening.
There are seven days in a week.

e.g., That girl in red dress is my sister.
Shobha looks pretty in chudidar.

BY is used to show :

e.g., Please, don’t sit by the window.
Her house is by the college.

2. TO SHOW CAUSE: ( Usually by is used in the Passive Voice after Past Participle.)
e.g., A story was told by the student.
He was caught by the police.

e.g., Why don’t you send the letter by courier?
We have to travel by bicycle.

FOR is used to show :

e.g., This train is leaving for Lahore.
This is a letter for you.

e.g., India is not preparing for war.
Study hard for your exams.

e.g., Dr. Shivarudrappa went for a walk.
Raju works for money only.

e.g., Smoking is bad for lungs.
This films is for adults only.

e.g., I bought this dictionary for Rs. 595/-.
Sudha purchased ten saries for Rs.3000.

e.g., Children sleep for 12 hours a day.
Dr. Shivaprasad walks for two kilometres.

WITH is used to show :

e.g., Ravi came to our home with Suma.
Those books are with Sanjay.

e.g., Smitha covered herself with a blanket.
Cut an apple with a knife.

Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions

Vikram Sarabhai thought of going ——— England.
A. in ___B. for ___C. at ___D. to

————working as a teacher, he also writes books in his spare time.
A. besides ___B. beside ___C. by ___D. about.

Sir. M. Visvesvaraya was a man ————principles.
A. with ___B. for ___C. by ___D. of

Keep ————the grass.
A. off ___B. of ___C. on ___D. into

We can only achieve success ——— hard work.
A. in ___B. by ___C. through ___D. along
Narendra heard ——— Sri Ramakrishna from Prof. Hastie.
A. of ___B. from ___C. at ___D. to

Andy’s face was gleaming ——— delight.
A. from ___B. for ___C. at ___D. with

Swamiji went ——— a walk in the afternoon.
A. in ___B. for ___C. at ___D. to

Many stories are told about the Desais ——— Jainur.
A. in ___B. for ___C. of ___D. to

Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions

Andy slapped them down under his fist on the table before the squire.

"Ride into the town and see whether there is any letter for me."

Andy waited for about half an hour, in spite of the taunts of the postmaster.

Andy came to the squire’s presence, his face beaming with delight.

Just at this moment, a person who knew Andy came to the shop.

Vikram was born on 12th August 1919 in Ahmedabad.

Many of his classmates went to him with their problems.

Vikram was awarded Ph.D. by the Cambridge University for his studies on the subject.

Vikram thought of going to England for higher studies in physics.

Vikram was good at his studies, especially in science.

Vishwanath was known for charity and was respected by everyone.

There was thunderous applause from the vast audience, and it lasted for two minutes.

Sometimes Narendra turned the classroom into a place of lively discussion.

The misssion aimed at translating into action the message Sri Ramakrishna all over the world.

Narendra would get lost in thoughts about God.

You come under pressure only when you begin to think of your disadvantage.

He is going to the USA to spend some time with his son.

The first session of the Parliament was opend in the Great Hall of Columbus at Chicago.

We will have to honour the pandit by taking him round in procession.

I can empty the ocean with that small wooden bowl if you stop all the reivers flowing into the ocean with this bundle of cotton.

There is a total silence for sometime. Slowly the courtiers started talking among themselves.

Examples from Previous Question Papers

The headmaster was returning home from his walk.

He saw Tapan rubbing medicine on the ox’s leg. ( on, by, with, from )

The bomb was armed in the air to avoid the possibility of a nuclear accident on take off. ( for, of, in, to )

The appearace of such planes was a common occurence and most people did not bother to take shelter. ( on, to, by, of )

I walked around my desk and sat in my chair. ( around, of, in, for)

I have a position in one of the city departments. ( of, at, in, for )

The community life of the Soligas is based on the sharing system.
( in, at, on, of)

The bomb exploded with a brilliant flash of light. ( of, with,by, in)

No soliga has ever suffered from want of food. ( for, from, to, of)

She spoke to the Dutch king on the state of prisons in Holland.
( to, for, about, on)
Tapan rubbed some medicine on its leg. There were tears in his eyes. ( of, in, on, by)

The policeman on the beat, moved up the avenue impressively.
( under, on, up, with )

He intends to give a special gift of surprise. ( for, of, to, with)

After cultivation for some years, the land is abandoned and it turns into a forest again. (for, in, into, up)

The Soligas find God in every blade of grass. ( of, to in, for )

The bomb was armed in the air to avoid the possiblity of a nuclear war. ( of, on, in, by )

Tapan has been given fifteen strokes for riding an ox into the class room. (with, for, in, into)

It is true that I threw stones at his shop with Ratan and others.
( in, for, at, by, with, about)

It crashed into the room of class VII ( of, to, into, in )

India was freed from the clutches of the British rule on 15th August 1947.
For details :
APPLIED ENGLISH COURSE (10th Edition, 17th Print)




A sentence that expresses strong feelings of mind ( of joy, sorrow, surprise, wonder, pain or fear) is called an "Exclamatory Sentence’.

These sentences are given for conversion into Assertive.

Placing the Subject in the opening of the sentence followed by its verb and complements these sentences are changed into Assertives.

How stupid of him to say that!
Ans.: It is very stupid of him to say that.

How clever she is !
Ans.: She is very clever.

How wise you are!
Ans.: You are very wise.

What a sweet fragrance!
Ans.: It is indeed sweet frangrance.

How intelligent Narendra was!
Ans.: Narendra was very intelligent.

What a powerful concentration of mind Narendra had!
Ans.: Narendra had a very powerful concentration of mind.

What an extraordinary soul Ramkrishna was!
Ans.: Ramakrishna was really an extraordinary soul.

How kind Dr. Sarabhai was to his employees!
Ans.: Dr. Srabhai was very kind to his employees.

What a fine spinner Chandrashekar was!
Ans.: Chandrashekar was a very fine spinner.

How foolish we are to send missionaries to this learned nation!
Ans.: We are really very foolish to send missionaries to



Positive Degree : Adjectives without comparison
e.g., good, long, short, heavy, clever, intelligent, beautiful etc.

Comparative Degree : Adjectives used to compare two persons / things.
better, longer, shorter, heavier, cleverer, more intelligent, more beautiful

Superlative Degree : Adjectives used to state the best of all other persons or things compared.
e.g.,best, longest, shortest, heaviest, cleverest, most intelligent, most beautiful

e.g., Jagannath is a fat man.
(No other man is as fat as Jagannath.)
Surendra is fatter than Raju.
Siddesh is the fattest of all others.

This is a difficult problem.
(No other problem is as difficult as this.)
This is more difficult than all other problems.
This is the most difficult of all the problems.

Smitha is a beautiful lady.
Sushmitha is more beautiful than Smitha.
Geethanjali is the most beautiful of all the three young ladies.

Iron is a useful metal. ( No other metal is as useful as iron.)
Iron is more useful than any other metal.
Iron is the most useful metal.(of all the metals)

A man with a gun is stronger than a man without a gun.
A man without a weapon is not as strong as a man with a gun.

Rahul Dravid is the finest batsman at the moment.
No other batsman at the moment is as fine as Rahul Dravid.

Vikram Sarabhai was one of the greatest scientists.
Very few scientists were as great as Vikram Sarabhai.

Chandrashekar was one of the greatest leg-break bowlers in the world.
Very few leg-break bowlers in the world were as great as Chandrashekar.

Vivekananda was greater than most of saints in the world.
No other saint in the world was as great as Vivekananda.

Vivekananda was more learned than all our professors put together.
Vivekananda was the most learned of al our professors put together.

Daksha was the wisest lady.

No other lady was as wise as Daksha.

India is the biggest country in Asia.
No other country in Asia is as big as India.

Silver is cheaper than gold. Gold is not as cheap as silver.
Milk is not as sweet as honey. Honey is sweeter than milk.

Spoken English Made Easy


Hello Friends,

Happy New Year.

Here is an opportunity to grab and learn your favourite topic "Spoken English".

Bedre Manjunath


Saturday, 22 December 2007



Construction of paragraphs or stories on the given outline is a very good exercise to bring out the student’s imagination and capacity to write in simple language.

While writing the paragraph / story follow the outline given carefully. Do not omit any point. Keep to the order in which the points are given in the outline.

Be careful to connect the points given in the outline naturally so that the whole willbe read well as a connected piece of good composition. You must use your imagination in filling the details of action, gesture and conversation that should connect one point with the next.

If you are asked to supply a heading or title to the paragraph or story, you may choose the main character, object or incident of the story or a proverb or well-known quotation that suits the story.

See that your composition is grammatical , idiomatic and in good simple English. Revise your work, and if necessary, rewrite it until it is as good as you can make it.

Please do take the help of sentence structures while constructing sentences.


1. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A fox fell into a well - a thirsty goat came to the well - fox invited the goat to have a drink of fresh water - the foolish goat jumped into the well - fox tried to step on the goat’s back and jumped off - promised to draw out goat afterwards - the goat agreed - the fox went away - foolish goat stayed there.

2. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A slave escaped from bondage to the forest - soldiers came after him to catch - entered a cave - a lion was roaring with pain - its paw was swollen - the slave approached it and removed the thorn - they became friends - later the soldiers arrested the slave - took him to the king - the king ordered the solidiers to throw the slave to the hungry lion - the lion rushed at the slave - recognised the slave - remembered the kindness shown by the slave - then licked the feet of the slave - the spectators amazed - the slave explained the situation to them - the king set him free.

3. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A hungry fox - saw a crow with a piece of meat in its beak. Fox thought of a plan - praised the crow - the crow listened - felt very happy - fox requested the crow to sing a song - foolish crow very pleased - began to sing - the piece of meat fell down - Fox picked up - ran away .

4. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A wood cutter - cutting wood - dropped his axe in the pond - started weeping - god appeared - asked what the matter was - brought a golden axe from the pond - wood cutter did not accept - brought a silver axe - not accepted - brought an iron axe - accepted - pleased with the honesty of the poor wood cutter - offered all the axes to him.

5. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

Two friends - travelling in a forest - a bear appeared - afraid - one hastily climbed up a tree - the other lied down motionless - the bear came near and sniffed the boy - went away - the friend on the tree climbed down - inquired - what did the bear tell him - replied - " Don’t trust a false friend."

6. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

Robert Bruce - King - lying on the ground in a dejected mood - failed to defeat his enemies - was thinking of giving up the attempt - saw a spider falling down from the ceiling - the ceiling far away - wondered how it would get there - the spider fell back again - again it tried - again it fell - it made nine such attempts - no success - climbed up once more - at last succeeded in reaching the roof - Bruce imitated its example - he too tried once again - was successful.

7. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A dog with a piece of bone in its mouth - crossing a river - saw its shadow - mistaken it for another dog with another piece of bone - dropped its bone to snatch the other bone - Moral.

8. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A farmer had a goose - it laid a golden egg every day - gready farmer - wanted to more golden eggs at once - thought of a plan - killed the goose - opened its stomach - no golden egg - Moral.

9. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

Cap seller - going to market - felt tired - slept under a tree - a basket - caps for sale - monkeys on the tree - came down - opened the basket - took the caps - wore them - started making noise - Cap seller woke up - no cap in the basket - looked up in wonder - monkeys wearing caps - tried several methods to collect the caps - failed - out of frustration threw his cap - monkeys also threw the caps - Cap seller collected the caps and went aways happily.

10. Construct a paragraph / a story using the outline given below:

A king’s elephant - daily goes to the river - tailor’s shop on the way - tailor offered some fruit always - one day he pricked the trunk of the elephant with his needle - elephant went away calmly - on its reuturn brought muddy water from the tank - sprayed the dirty water all over the tailor’s shop.



Read the passage / story quickly to get the general ideas.

Read it again slowly to know the details.

Study the questions thoroughly. Turn to the relevant portion of the passage / story . Read them again and write neatly in your own words.

Answer in complete sentences. If the questions require one word answer then you can give the one word answer. Answers should not be lengthy.

If you are asked to give the meaning of any word you should expess the ideas as clearly as possible in your own words.

If you are required to give a title or heading to the passage/ story, you can name it either after the main character,object, incident mentioned in the passage, or after some saying or proverb illustrated by the passage.

Give a suitable title.



He was a stranger in that land and had not anticipated the difficulties he had to undergo. Insults were heaped on him by unthinking Americans. But through the kindness of a few people he was able to be enrolled as a delegate to the parliament of religions. There were about sixty speakers and seven thousand listners. When his turn came to speak, he bowed down to Goddess Saraswathi, stepped forward and said, " Sisters and Brothers of America". That single sincere evocation touched the hearts of the audience. They felt that some of their own circle was speaking and not a stranger. They burst into loud applause. When they became quiet, Vivekananda delivered his speech and that speech made him world famous. The very next day big pictures of Swamiji were put up in the streets. All the newspapers wrote high of him. Overnight Vivekananda bacame a hero. He was the subject of discussion everywhere. He toured extensively in America and spoke of the spirituality. Many people in England wanted Vivekananda to speak to them. So he went there too. It was the same time when the English were ruling India. But Vivekananda conquered the conquerors. They said, " What must be greatness of India if it can produce sages like Swamiji". After touring and lecturing extensisvely, he returned to his motherland.


1) What makes you to think that it was a large gathering ?
2) How was he able to enroll himself as a delegate to the parliament of religions?
3) Why did the audience feel that some one of their own circle was speaking to them ?
4) What was the impression of the people of England about Vivekananda?
5) How did he become a hero overnight ?

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was moved to tears when she read about the distress of the poor wounded soldiers at Scutary. Wounded soldiers were dying in hundreds everyday. There were only a few doctors and nurses to attend the large number of wounded soldiers who were brought from the battlefield. At that time women nurses were never heard of in army hospitals. But the cry of the wounded soldiers reached the ears of Miss Nightingale and she offered her services as a nurse at the Military Hospital at Scutary. Her offer was accepted by the government. With a little band of thirty-eight nurses she sailed for Scutary.


1) What made Miss Nightingale very sad ?
2) Why were the wounded soldiers dying in hundreds ?
3) Why did Nightingale offer her services at the hospital ?
4) Who went with her to Scutary ?
5) Give a suitable title for the passage.


Once an ant fell into a stream. In vain it tried to catch hold of a leaf or twig to save itself. It was carried along the stream. A dove was watching the ant from the branch of a tree. Out of pity it let fall a leaf into the stream. The ant climbed upon the leaf and was saved.
Another day, a hunter took aim at the same dove with his gun. The dove knew nothing about this hunter; but the ant saw him. It knew that the dove was in danger. It quickly came to the hunter and bit his toe. The hunter missed his aim and the dove flew away. That was how the grateful ant did good turn to the kind dove.


1) Why was the ant carried along the stream ?
2) How did the dove rescue the ant ?
3) Why did the hunter miss his aim ?
4) What is the moral conveyed in the story ?
5) Give a suitable title .


Most of the people who appear most often in history books are great conquerors. Strangely enough, the people who really helped the civilization forward are often never mentioned at all. We do not know who made the first boat or calculated the length of the year ; but we know our killers and destroyers. We raise statues to them simply because they fought bravely. But even animals fight. So do savages. To fight is not to be civilized. Moreover, there are other ways of settling quarrels among men or nations. So really civilized people have been those who have brought peace and happiness to mankind. They have been prophets, saints, doctors, inventors and discoverers who instead of inflicting pain and hardship upon humanity, have healed their wounds. In stead of killing they have saved human lives. They are really civilized and deserve our admiration and respect.


1) Who are the people that generally appear in history books ?
2) Is fighting a mark of civilization ? Why ?
3) Who are truely civilized ?
4) Why do they deserve our admiration and respect ?
5) Give a suitable title .

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln is one of those great men whose life-story is also the history of the nation to which they belong. The famous phrase " from log cabin to White House " sums up the career of Abraham Lincoln. However, his greatness does not lie in the fulfilment of his personal ambition, but in his work for his country and for humanity. It is to him, as to no other individual, that the United States of America owes its present position as one of the greatest world powers. It was Lincoln who laid the foundation of freedom and unity. And yet after having accomplished all this, he had the humility to say, "I have done nothing to make any human being remember that I have lived."


1) To whom does the USA owe its present position ?
2) Which line in the paragraph speaks of his humility ?
3) Pick out the phrase that tells that from a poor family he became the President of America.
4) In what does the greatness of Lincoln lie ?
5) Give a suitable title.


Some people think that the aim of education is merely to give knowledge. These people want students to read books and do nothing else. Others think that knowledge alone is not enough; only that which enables a man to earn his living can be called education. Still others believe that education should aim solely at making good citizens and good patriots. As a matter of fact education should aim at all these three things together. It should give men knowledge, make themselves sufficient, and able to serve others. Education should not produce citizens who while they love their own freedom take away the freedom of others. It should produce men who love their own country but who do not want to harm other countries.


1) What do some people think to be the aim of education ?
2) What do others think about it ?
3) What is the true aim of education ?
4) What kind of citizens should education produce ?
5) Give a suitable title.


Kabir’s teaching was so simple and so good that many persons became his followers. But some people who had evil hearts grew jealous of him. The more famous he baceme the more they hated him. At last these people went to the king and told him that Kabir misled the people against him. The king was full of anger when he heard this, and sent him to the Kazi so that he might try and punish him. Eventually the Kazi ordered Kabir to be burnt to death.
A big fire was prepared outside the city, and nearly all the inhabitants came to see the cruel sight. Kabir’s followers who had gathered there in large numbers, requested him to save his life by asking the king to pardon him. But they did not know how brave he was. Even death could not frighten him. So when the king’s men got ready to throw him into the fire he was seen smiling. Taking him close to the fire they gave such a great push that he fell right into the rising flames. But was he really burnt ? No, not at all. In the midst of the red flames he began to glow like gold. Soon after, the fire cooled down of itself and the saint came out of it smiling. Everybody present felt very happy and showed respect for the saint by touching his feet.


1) Who hated Kabir ?
2) Why was the king angry with Kabir ?
3) What was the result of Kabir’s trial ?
4) Everybody present felt very happy, why ?
5) Give a suitable title.


In every country people imagine that they are the best and the cleverest and the others are not so good as they are. The Englishman thinks that he and his country are the best ; the Frenchman is very proud of France and everything French. The Germans and Italians think no less of their countries and many Indians imagine that India is in many ways the greatest country in the world. This is wrong. Everybody wants to think well of himself and his country. But really there is no person, who hasnot got some bad qualities. In the same way there is no country which is not partly good and partly bad. We must take the good wherever we find it and try to remove the bad whatever it may be. We are, of course, most concerned with our own country. Unhappily, it is in a bad way today. Most of our people are poor and unhappy. They have no joy in their lives. We have to find out how we can make them happier. We have to see what is good in our ways and customs and try to keep it,and whatever is bad we have to throw away. If we find anything good in other countries, we should certainly take it.


1) What do people think in every country ?
2) What do many Indians imagine ?
3) What must we do ?
4) What should we throw away ?
5) What should be our attitude towards other countries ?


A great defect of our civilization is that it does not know what to do with its knowledge. Science has given us powers fit for the Gods, yet we use them like small children. For example, we do not know how to use our machines. Machines are made to be man’s servants ; yet he has grown so dependent on them that they are becoming his masters. Already most men spend most of their lives looking after and waiting upon machines. And the machines are very stern masters. They must be kept at the right temperature. Otherwise, they refuse to work or burst with rage and blow up. So we have to wait upon them attentively. Already we find it difficult to work or play without machines and a time may come when they will rule us altogether, just as we rule the animals.


1) What is the great defect of our civilization ?
2) How have machines become our masters ?
3) What happens if we do not wait upon the machines carefully ?
4) What could be the result of our dependence on machines ?
5) Give a suitable title .


Helen Keller was aged two when an illness took away her sight and hearing. Since she was deaf she also lost the ability to speak, for we learn to speak by imitating what we hear. So as a child she lived in a dark and silent world. At first it seemed impossible that she would ever understand others or be understood by them. Hers was thus a very lonely world. She was helped by a wonderful teacher called Miss Sullivan. She was blind as child but recovered her sight after an operation. Miss Sullivan volunteered to help Helen and taught her to speak, read and write. Helen, later, went to a university and even gained a degree. She then spent the rest of her life working to help the blind and the deaf.


1) How old was Helen Keller when she lost her sight and hearing ?
2) Why did Helen live in a "dark" and "silent" world ?
3) Who helped Helen in learning ?
4) How did Helen make use of her education ?
5) Give a suitable title.

For more details :

Please do read - "Applied English Course" (10th Edition - 17th Print)

Pub. Navakarnataka Publications, Bangalore. Rs. 165-00

Friday, 21 December 2007



A person who loves money and hates spending it, is a
A. spendthrift ______B. miser ______C. philanthropist ______D. capitalist.

The family was known for its wealth and greatness of heart.
The word that can be used in the place of the underlined phrase is:
A. generosity ______B. courage ______C. affluence ______D. prestige

One word for ‘a person who has been appointed or selected to attend a conference’ is:
A. ambassador ______B. delegate ______C. representative ____D. messenger

A person who is slow in learning is termed as:
A. dullard ______B. bad ______C. lazy ______D. dunce.

A book with blank pages on which pictures or paper cuttings are stuck is known as a:
A. plain book ______B. paint book ______C. drawing book ______D. scrap book.


A silly person _____________Goose
A person who lives a wandering life ________ Vagabond
Social position or rank _____________________Status
Someone who knows a lot about the subject ___Scholar
Deeply religious ____________________________Pious
A building in which monks live ______________Monastery
An instrument used to see distant objects ___Telescope
A person who is slow to learn _______________Dunce
The path in which planets move ______________Orbit
A permit from an authority to own, use or do something ___Licence
A person who has been appointed or selected
to attend or speak at a conference ____Delegate
One who does the scientific study of the sun, the moon, etc. _ Astronomer
The study or practice of travelling through the air __Aeronautics
A person trained to travel in a spacecraft ____Astronaut
Say a prayer in singing voice ________________Chant
Visit a place often __________________________Haunt
Final release from rebirth ___________________Deliverance
A person who loves money and hates spending it __ Miser
An ugly woman _______________________________ Hag
An animal that is cruel and dangerous ________Beast
Skillful in inventing ________________________Ingenious
Say publickly that something important is true ___Proclaim
To be disloyal to someone who trusts you _____Betray
Situation in which everything is happening in a confused way ___Chaotic
A drink usually made from a mixture of one ormore alcoholic drinks __ Cocktail
A loose piece of clothing without sleeves _______ Mantle
A painting, drawing or photograph of a person
especially of the head and shoulders ______Portrait
to make someone angry ___________________________Grieve
Height above sea level __________________________Altitude
To shift people from a place of danger to a safer place ____ Evacuate
To cause to feel no pain ______________________ Numb
Men who work on shores loading unloading ships ___Longshoremen
Name shared by all the members of a family _______Surname
One who is very eager for knowledge and reads a lot____Voracious
That which cannot be satisfied __________________ Insatiable
A flightless bird now extinct ____________________Dodo
Storehouse for grains ____________________________Granary
Animals that live in a particular region ________ Fauna
A place in a house where food is kept ____________Storeroom
A person who belongs to another country _________ Foreigner
Study of ancient monuments and arts ______________Archeology
Science which deals with the study of living beings____Biology
Science of earth’s crust and the interior strata ______Geology
The art of understanding the influence of heavenly bodies __Astrology
To seek protection from danger __________________ Refuge
One who presides over the function _______________President
A man servant who serves at the table_____________Waiter
Waste material __________________________________ Garbage
One who makes furniture __________________________Carpenter
One who treats patients _________________________ Doctor
One who can read and write _______________________Literate
A place where prisoners are kept _________________Jail / Gaol
One who does farming _____________________________Farmer
A poem of fourteen (14) lines ____________________Sonnet
A book where you find meanings for words__________Dictionary
A document with a code of laws which checks both ruler and ruled ___ Constitution
A period of one hundred years (100 years) ________Century
A light pleasure boat ____________________________Yacht
Short stories with an element of moral ___________Fable
Red or yellow burning gas seen when something is on _____Flame
A person who writes novels ________________________Novelist
A document allowing persons to travel abroad ______Passport
One who looks only at the darker side of life _____Pessimist
One who looks at the brighter side of life _______ Optimist
A place where horses are kept _____________________Stable
A type of small dog with a turned up nose ________ Pug
Remains of prehistoric animal or plant preserved by
being buried in earth ______________________________Fossils
A place where meals are sold and eaten _____________Restaurant
Things given or received as gift____________________Present
A man who does not know how to read and write ______Illiterate
A large number of people or animals suffering from
the same kind of disease at the sametime _______Epidemic
One who travels in a space vehicle _________________Astronaut
A book giving inforamtion on all branches of knowledge ____ Encyclopaedia
Liquid waste that flows out from a factory__________Effluents
A living creature that is so small that it cannot be
seen without a microscope and that may cause diseases ___Microbe
Part of the earth where life is found ______________Biosphere
Government of the people, by the people and for the people ___Democracy
The act of killing oneself __________________Suicide
Soldiers who fight on horse back_____________Cavalry
Soldiers who fight on foot __________________Infantry
Strong rush of air, rain, smoke etc. carried by wind___Gust
A person who uses his strength or power to frighten or hurt others ____Bully
A part of a horse’s harness that goes on to its head _____Briddle
A wild or half trained horse or bull ___________Bronco
A sudden rush of frightened animals _____________Stampede
Space or room which is immediately below the roof of a house____Attic
A person who has been found guilty and is being punished ______ Criminal
A person who does banking business ______________Banker
A mad person ___________________________________Lunatic
A person who is incharge of keys of a prison____Turnkeys
A person in charge of a jail and the prisoners in it____________Jailor
One who is unable to pay his debts _____________Bankrupt
Long hard journey especially on foot ___________Trek
Group of people living together _______________Community
A group of soldiers living in a town or a fort, and defending it _____Garrison
Flesh eating animals _________________________Carnivorous
Flesh and Vegetable eating animals ___________Omnivorous
Plants of a particular region ________________Flora
Government by small groups __________________Oligarchy
A policeman in ordinary clothes while on duty ____Plainclothesman
Storehouse of grains ______________________Granary
Practice of talking too much about oneself _____Egotism
The height of an object above sea level _______Altitude
Storehouse of grains ______________Granary
A person who uses his strength to frighten weaker people_____Bully
A person who flies an aeroplane _____________Pilot
Number of books housed in one building _____ Library
A person who studies Physics _______________Physicist
The act of killing oneself _________________Suicide
A place where meals are sold and bought______Restaurant
A mark remaining on the skin from a wound _________ Scar
Name shared by all the members of the family _______Surname
Making someone angry _________________Provocate
Difficulty in breathing ________________Suffocation
Soldiers who fight on horseback___________ Cavalry
Things given or received as a gift ___________Present
A sudden rush of frightened people or animals _______Stampede
The story of a person’s life written by others________Biography
Special quality not found anywhere else ___________Uniqueness
To make impure by mixing dirty or poisonous matter_Contaminate
A person who writes poems _________________Poet
For more details :
Please do read
Applied English Course- A Hanbook of Spoken and Written English
10th Edition, 17th print, Pub.: Navakarnataka Publications, Bangalore



When we use the exact words of the speaker, it is called the "Direct Speech."

When we report the speech in our own words, it is called the "Indirect Speech" or "Reported Speech".


We have to incorporate FOUR major changes while tranforming a Direct Speech sentence into an Indirect Speech sentence.
1. Change of Reporting Verb:
Reporting verb, i.e. the verb outside the inverted commas, has to be changed depending upon the sentence within the inverted commas. (TheTense of these verbs doesn’t change.)

If the sentence within the inverted commas is "Assertive" the reporting verb (said) changes as : told, replied, answered, stated, declared, narrated, described, communicated, reported etc.

If the sentence within the inverted commas is "Interrogative" the reporting verb (said) changes as : asked, questioned, enquired, inquired, interrogated etc.

If the sentence within the inverted commas is "Imparative" the reporting verb (said) changes as : requested, ordered, advised, commanded, appealed, directed, guided, etc.

If the sentence within the inverted commas is "Exclamatory" the reporting verb (said) changes as : exclaimed with joy /surprise/ wonder or cried with pain / sorrow

2. Change of Personal Pronouns:

When the reporter uses "I", it refers to him. If he uses other pronouns, they refer to different persons. So there is a need to change the persons. They change as :

______Direct Speech __Indirect Speech

I Person ___(I / We) _____He / She / It / They
II Person___(You / You) ____He / She / It / They /I / We / You
III Person __(He / She) _____He (....) / She (....)/ (It / They) It (....) / They(.....)

3. Change of Tense Forms:

If the Reporting Verb is in the Present Tense or Future Tense then there is no change in the tense of the Reported Speech.

Suma says to Samarth , "I write letters."
Suma tells Samarth that she writes letters.

Suma will say to Samarth , "I write letters."
Suma will tell Samarth that she writes letters.

If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense then the tense of the Reported Speech will change as :
Simple Present _________to_________ Simple Past
Present Continuous _________to ______Past Continuous
Present Perfect_________ to_________ Past Perfect
PresentPerfectContinuous ___to _______Past Perfect Continuous

Simple Past _________to _________Past Perfect
Past Continuous _________to _________Past Perect Continuous
Past Perfect _________remains _________Past Perfect
Past Perfect Continuous ___-"- _________Past Perfect Continuous

Suma said to Samarth , "I write letters."
Suma told Samarth that she wrote letters.

In Future Tense "Will" and "Shall" change into "Would" and sometimes in "Should". "Can" into "Could" and"May" into "Might". No other change.

There is an exception to this rule. If the sentence is a UNIVERSAL TRUTH then the tense should not be changed. e.g.,

Suma said to Samarth , "Blood is red."
Suma told Samarth that blood is red.

4. Change of Nearness to Remoteness:

When the reporter refers to a thing near to him it is certainly in a distance to us. So, the things which are near in the Direct Speech may become far in the Reported Speech as:
Direct Speech Reported Spech
This / That _________That
These / Those _________Those
Here / There _________There
Now / Then _________Then
Thus _________So
Today _________That day
Tonight _________That night
This week _________That week
Yesterday _________The day before /The previous day
Last week _________The previous week
Tomorrow _________The following day
Next week _________The following week


Suma said to Samarth , "I write letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she wrote letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I am writing letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she was writing letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I have written letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had written letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I have been writing letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had been writing letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I wrote letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had written letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I was writing letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had been writing letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I had written letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had written letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I had been writing letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had been writing letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I shall write letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she would write letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I shall be writing letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she would be writing letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I shall have written letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she would have written letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I shall have been writing letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she would have been writing letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I can write letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she could write letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth , "I have to write letters to my friends."
Suma told Samarth that she had to write letters to her friends.

Suma said to Samarth,"This is our house.You can come here whenever you want"
Suma told Samarth that that was their house and he could go there whenever he wanted.

Tapan said , "I did not lead the ox into the classroom."
Tapan said that he had not led the ox into the classroom.

Tapan said , "It is true that I threw stones at Haren’s shop."
Tapan said that it was true that he had thrown stones at Haren’s shop.

Bob said to the policeman , "I am waiting for my friend."
Bob told the policeman that he was waiting for his friend.


Sudha said to Sumanth , "Why are you laughing loudly?"
Sudha asked Sumanth why he (Sumanth) was laughing loudly.

Andy said to the postmaster, "Will you give me the letter?"
Andy asked the postmaster if he (postmaster) would give him (Andy) the letter.

The postmaster said to Andy,"Who do you want it for?"
The postmaster asked Andy who he wanted it for.

"Do you think I am a fool ?" said Andy to the postmaster.
Andy asked the postmaster if he (postmaster) thought that he (Andy) was a fool.

Mr Durfy said to the postmaster, "Have you one for me?"
Mr Durfy asked the postmaster if he had one for him.

The author said to the cricketer, "Which is your greatest test match?"
The author asked the cricketer which his greatest test match was.

"Do you have any answer?" said the King to his courtiers.
The king asked if they (courtiers) had any answer.

Daksha said to her father, "What nice thing did you have to offer to the king?"
Daksha asked her father what nice thing he had had to offer to the king.

Jeejabai said to Thanaji , " Can you give me the Lion-Fort?"
Jeejabai asked Thanaji whether he could give her the Lion-Fort.

He said , "Does God really exist?"
He asked whether God really eisted.

"Do you write some examples now?" asked the class teacher.
The class teacher asked if they wrote some examples then.

Tapan said to Granny , " Will you hold on to me?"
Tapan asked Granny whether she would hold on to him.

Robert A. Lewis said , "What have you done?"
Robert A. Lewis asked what they had done.

"Can you swim ?" asked the coach.
The coach enquired (the person) whether he could swim.

{ NOTE : While transferring interrogative sentences the Question Word "Wh" word has to be retained. If there is no "Wh" word, that is, if the question is an Inverted (Yes / No type) Question, then we have to use "if " or "whether" in place of the question word.
The word order of the sentence "Wh + Ax. + S + V.........= (?)" changes into "Wh + S + Ax. + V......=(.)" }

Where you are going. (Assertive Sentence)
Where are you going? (Interrogative Sentence)

Geethanjali said to me, "Where are you going?"
Geethanjali asked me where I was going.


Asha said to Vishwanath , " Give me a pen."
Asha requested Vishwanath to give her a pen.

Rowland said , " Bring the poker here."
Rowland ordered Jove to bring the poker there.

The headmaster said to Mohan , " Bring Tapan of class V."
The headmaster ordered Mohan to bring Tapan of class V.

Tapan said , " Don’t hurt dumb animals."
Tapan requested (them) not to hurt dumb animals.

The policeman said , " Take out your identity card. I want to see it."
The policeman ordered (the student) to take out his ( the student’s) identity card because he (the policeman) wanted to see it.

Mohan said , "Ravi, Give up driniking. You will be healthy."
Mohan advised Ravi to give up drinking so that he (Ravi) would be healthy.


Suhail said , "Hurrah! India has won the series against England."
Suhail exclaimed with joy that India had won the series against England

Miss Spoorthy said , "Aah! I cut my finger."
Miss Spoorthy cried with pain that she had cut her finger.

Kareena said , "Oh! It is very cold outside."
Kareena exclaimed with surprise that it was very cold outside.

Priya said , "What a cold night it is !" (It is a cold night.)
Priya exclaimed with wonder that it was a cold night.

Veeresh said , "Wah! She is very beautiful."
Veeresh exclaimed with surprise that she was very beautiful.

Girish said , "How beautiful she is !" (She is very beautiful.)
Girish exclaimed with wonder that she was very beautiful.



"I have come for that letter," he (Andy) said.
Andy told (the postmaster) that he had come for that letter.

"I am glad to hear it," said the postmaster.
The postmaster replied that he was glad to hear it.

"That old cheat wanted to charge double for it," said Andy.
Andy complained that that old cheat had wanted to charge double for it.

The postmaster said to Andy, "You have to pay me eleven - pence."
The postmaster told Andy that he(Andy) had to pay him (the postmaster) eleven - pence.

Squire Egan said, "It may be a double letter."
Squire Egan said that it might be a double letter.

"Here’s a letter for the squire," said the postmaster.
The postmaster said that there was a letter for the squire.

The postmaster said to Andy, "Is there anyone in the town who knows you?"
The postmaster enquired Andy if there was anyone in the town who knew him (Andy)"

Andy said, "My master will murder if I am not back soon."
Andy said that his master would murder if he was not back soon.

Andy said to his master, "I don’t like to be troublesome, sir."
Andy said to his master (politely) that he did not like to be troublesome.

The postmaster said to Andy, "I’ll attend to you by and by."
The postmaster told Andy that he (postmaster) would attend to him (Andy) by and by.

Andy said to the postmaster, "Have you anything to say about it."
Andy asked the postmaster if he (postmaster) had anything to say about it.

Daksha said to her father, "Didn’t the guards stop you at the gates?"
Daksha asked her father if the guards had not stopped him at the gates.

The King said, "Is there no one who can venture an answer?"
The king asked if there was no (any) one who could venture an answer.

The king said to the farmer, "Come to the court with your daughter tomorrow."
The king ordered / asked the farmer to come to the court with his daughter the following day.

The courtiers said, "We shall certainly solve it."
The courtiers said that they would certainly solve it.

Daksha said to her father, "I will give you some boiled beans tomorrow."
Daksha told her father that she would give him some boiled beans the following day.

The King said, "Daksha, my whole kingdom is proud of you!"
The King (appreciated and) told Daksha that his whole kingdom was proud of her.

The King said, "Daksha, I’ll permit you to take away anything you like as a prize."
The King told Daksha that he would pemit her to take away anything she liked as a prize.

Daksha said, "I am taking away my prize."
Daksha said that she was taking away her prize.

The King said, "Where has all your wit gone, my dear ministers?"
The King asked his dear ministers where all their wit had gone.

The King said to the lady, "What are you doing?"
The King asked the lady what she was doing.

Daksha said, "Father, why did you go to the palace?"
Daksha asked her father why he had gone to the palace.

"Did the king talk to all who you went with?’ said Daksha to her father.
Daksha asked her father if / whether the king had talked to all who he (the famer) had gone with.

Daksha said to her father, "Don’t worry."
Daksha asked / advised her father not to worry.

Passerby - 2 said, "How ridiculous!" (It is ridiculous.)
Passerby - 2 exclaimed with wonder that it was ridiculous.

Passerby - 3 said, "How stupid of him to say that!"
(It was stupid of him to say that.)
Passerby - 3 exclaimed with surprise that it was very stupid of him to say that.

Kashibai said, "I will use it for drying cow dung cakes."
Kashibai said that she would use it for drying cow dung cakes.

The collector said to Kashibai, "If you refuse to handover the car, I will cancel its registration."
The collector warned Kashibai that If she refused to handover the car, he would cancel its registration.

The author said to the cricketer, "Which is your greatest test match?"
The author asked the cricketer which his greatest test match was.

Chandrashekar said to the young cricketers, "Have an aim in life. Work hard with dedication."
Chandrashekar advised the young cricketers to have an aim in life and to work hard with dedication.

The author said to Chandrashekar, "Who do you think is the finest batsman at the moment?"
The author asked Chandrashekar who he thought was the finest bastman at the moment.

Chandrashekar said, "I have a passion for the game. That led me to persever."
Chandrashekar said that he had a passion for the game and that had led him to persever.