Friday, 21 March 2008

E-BOOK - THE NEW BOOK























THE NEW BOOK

E-BOOK



Sumanth was all smiles when his new class teacher Varsha showed his collection of pamphlets and booklets to his classmates. At the school assembly on 21st June , Vasrha Miss requested the Head Mistress to speak on the importance of Children’s Rights. Head Mistress was very glad to address the gathering. This marked the beginning of celebrations of all the important days and events in Sumanth’s school.
Every Thursday afternoon, specially the last period, was reserved for reading or story telling. Varsha Miss used to ask all the students to tell a story of their choice. This provided a platform for free expression. Everyone in the class was eager to tell one or the other story. Sometimes there was a competition! There was no binding on language also. Students loved this sesssion very much.
Last Thursday there was reading session. Miss gave some colourful books to all. Being the library incharge, Varsha loved to carry books to class-rooms and make the students read atleast for half an hour. There were many interesting story books. If the students liked to carry the books home, they could do so. "Adventures of Robinhood". "Adventures of Tom Sawyer", "Adventures of Huckelberryfin", "Kim", "Secret Seven", "Hardy Boys", "Nancy Drew", "The Time Machine", "The Invisible Man", "Adventure Stories", "Stories of Fantasy", "Jurasic Park", "Twentythousand leagues under the sea", "Journey to the centre of the earth", "Treasure Island", "Coral Island", "King Soloman’s Mines", "Adventures of Ulysis", "The Three Musketeers", "Alice in wonderland", "The Kidnapped", "Tale of Two Cities", "Lorna Doon", "Heidi", "Moby Dick", and many such titles attracted the students.
After distributing the books, Varsha went round to see whether the students were reading the books or not. Many were reading silently. A few of them were just turning the pages and making comments on the drawings in them. It was a busy session.
Varsha had a habit of introducing one new aspect in every period. She wanted her students to be brilliant in many fields. She found the I.Q. level of that 6th ‘B’ section was quite hight, so she brought new books, newspapers, charts, photographs to the class and showed them. This made her class still more interesting. Students were eager to learn many of aspects of G.K.
Now, Varsha observed everyone immersed in reading. She thought for a while and then asked, "Children, you have been reading many books. Can any one tell me why do we read or how many purposes are there for reading?"
"To learn, Miss." "To know more, Miss." "To enjoy."
"To know answers for the questions, Miss."
"Miss, here is a quotation on reading. Mr. Frank Jennings says, ‘We read to learn. We read to live another way. We read to quench some blind and shocking fire. We read to weigh the worth of what we have done or dare to do. We read to share our awful secrets with someone we know will not refuse us. We read our way into presensce of great wisdom, vast and safe suffering, or into the untidy corners of another kind of life we fear to lead."
The children went on giving their own version of the purposes of reading. Varsha remembered her college days. She was a voratious reader. Her sister Daksha presented her a book, "Learning to Read Effectively and Efficiently" written by Prameela Ahuja and G.C. Ahuja. It showed her the new way of reading and uderstanding more. She particularly liked this statement : ‘Reading is the first button in the garment of education. If the first button of a man’s coat is wrongly put, all the rest are bound to be crooked.’ Varsha repeated the statement and explained the purposes of reading.
"Well children, I agree with you. Prof. Hathaway identified 1620 purposes of reading. We read to gain meanings, to gain information, to guide activity, for social motives, to influence or entertain others, to find values, to organize, to solve problems, to remember, to enjoy, to satisfy an eagerness for knowledge, to compare views on a subject, to find illustrations of an idea, to discover relationships, to note the degree to whcih a thing is true, to view two sides of a question, to seek advice, to attain an attitude of open-mindedness and abilithy to form a tentative judgement, to entertain children, to learn the options of a district upon a political issue, to laugh, to re-live common, everyday experiences, to escape from real life, to enjoy the emotional life of others, to satisfy curiosity especially as to why people act the way they do, to enjoy dramatic situations vicariously, to gain information about the world we live in, to enjoy people and places we have never seen, to see how smart we are to outguess the author, solve a puzzle and so on."
"Miss, what are the uses of reading in the classroom?"
"We read in the classroom to find answers to specific questions, to determine the author’s aim or purpose, to find the central thought of a selection, to follow a sequence of related events, to enjoy the facts or story presented, to find the most important points and supporting details, to selelct facts which relate to a problem, to judge the validity of statements, to find facts supporting a point of view, to draw valid conclusions from materials read, to discover problems for additional study, to remember what is read, to determine the essential conditions of a problem, to follow directions with reasonable speed and accuracy."
"If we find a machine which reads all these books for us, how nice would it be!"
"Really! There are some machines availabe now. The books start narrating the story to you alive. They are in the form of Multi-Media Compact Disks. Diskis Books, Pentasoft Story Books, Sesame Street CDs, Schoolrom CDs and many more such compact disks contains hundreds of books which can be read with help of computers. If you place the CD in the drive and click the button, the Text Assistant Reader in them starts reading for you. There may be dramatic enactment of situations also. The colourful pictures and live scenes make the story more interesting."
"Miss, How shall we use them?"
"Well, as you know, we have a Language Laboratory in our school. We can go there and request the instructor to play those CDs for us and see them ourselves. I think we shall fix the next week for that listening session."
"Miss, Can’t we make our texts books to be read by computers?"
"Well, some of the CBSC and ICSC text books have been brought out in the form of CDs already. Many more CDs on Language Learning, Mathematics and Science have been availabe in the market. Recently I read an article on e-book. It is a small electronic divice like pager or a personal organiser. It has a small screen. Nearly 400 hundred text books can be stored in one e-book reader. It can be updated often. You can read all the text on the screen itself. If you feel bored, you can make the e-book reader to read it for you. For that you have to feed a Text Assistant Reader programme to that. With the help of a speakers or ear phones you can listen to the reading. You can choose the voice and pitch and also the speed of reading."
"Where shall we get them?"
"It is very costly now. Scientist are trying their best to produce the cheaper versions. When it is cheap all of you can bring such e-books to the class. You can even bring a note-book computer when you grow up. Then there will be no more burden of carrying books on your back. One small e-book and one note book computer or a device which can act as both will be the sole companion! How nice, yeah?"
"Will you show us such devices, Miss?"
"Sorry children, I don’t have the real ones with me. I have only the photographs of these e-books. Look here. This is Soft Book. This one is Rocket Book. This is Librius Millennium e-book. This is 3 Com Palm Pilot. These are all e-books . There are a number of e-books availabe on the INTERNET. If you are interested you can download them. You can select any search engine, say Google, Altavista, Rediff, Yahoo, Lycose, Netscape etc., and search for e-book sites. A few sites are here :
http://www.netlibrary.com/

http://www.softbook.com/
http://www.powells.com/

http://www.ebooknet.com/

http://www.barnesandnoble.com/subjects/ebooks

http://www.rocket-library.com/

http://ebookstore.cc/

http://www.ebooksforyou.com/

http://www.blackmask.com/

http://agoodbook.com/

http://diskbooks.org/

http://www.ebookmall.com/

http://www.m-pro.demon.co.uk/

http://www.e-booksonline.net/

http://www.e-publishingaustralia.com/

http://www.1stbooks.com/

http://www.time.com/

http://www.bb.com/

http://zanderebooks.com/

http://www.readslikeabook.com/

http://www.virtualvolumes.com/
http://www.ebookcompiler.com/
http://www.smart-web-promotion.com/e-books.htm

http://www.e-book-world.com/

etc.
"Miss, how do you collect so much information?"
"By reading."
"We will also read and gather information like you, Miss."
"Thank you, children. I love to see all of you be good readers and good citizens of our great nation. It is time up now. We have to leave."
"Thank you, Miss. We shall be your trusted pupils."
"Well, don’t forget to attend the Language Lab.Session next week. Bye."
"Bye, Miss."
BEDRE N. MANJUNATH
Address: C-3, AIR Staff Quarters, All India Radio, CHITRADURGA - 577 501. Ph:28974

Dictionary - Pen Dictionary - Electronic Dictionary - Web Dictionary - Free Dictionaries

















PLAY AND LEARN
THE DICTIONARY GAME


Hello friends!
How are you? Shall I ask you a question?, Well, how many of you have a dictionary? What is the name of that dictionary? How many of you have the habit of consulting the dictionary often? Do you know anything about the different varieties of dictionaries?
Don’t worry about these things now. If you have a dictionary, please do take it and ask you friends to join you in playing the Dictionary game!
Do you like to know why we play this game? Well, to know the correct meaning of the word, to improve our vocabulary, to know the correct spelling, to know the etymology, we play this game.
1. How to play:
Ask your friends to sit around you. They have to bring a pencil. You distribute a few small pieces of paper to them.
Now, you hold the dictionary in hand. Please do not open the dictionary. Ask any one of the friends to take a pencil and insert it in between the pages. Just open the page pierced. You find a number of words on the left page as well as on the right page.
It is left to you choose any one word. (It is better if you choose a simple one.) After choosing the word, read it aloud and ask them take it down. They have to write the correct spelling and meaning or definition of that word. If they do not know that word, atleast, let them guess the meaning and wirte. You too have to take a small piece of paper and write the correct meaning of the word from the dictionary. You can allot 2 to 3 minutes to do this. When they finish, collect all the chits, shuffle them and ask one your friends to read the meanings. After the reading session, once again, ask them to vote for the correct meaning / definition. Most of the times they find the correct meaning. Sometimes there may be more than one meaning for the word. If they fail to identify, it is your turn to show them the exact one. Got it! You need an example, don’t you? Here it is:
You have chosen the word "Peg". Your friends have written the meaning as :
1. a small page.
2. a wooden pin.
3. a piece of wood on a wall that you hang your coat on.
4. a type of small wooden or plastic object used for fastening wet clothes to a clothes line.
5. to fix or keep something at a certain level.
6. a measure of drinking.
7. very small quantity.
8. a sort of hanger.
Among these Nos.3, 4, 5 are correct ones. When you read the correct definition your friends will know a new word and, if possible, the usage of that word when you construct a sentence using that word. e.g., "Word are pegs to hang our ideas on." "We use pegs to hang our clothes."
This is one of the ways to improve our vocabulary. You can play this game with the help of an Encyclopaedia also. The same proceedure applies here too.
Now, you know the game. I hope you would be interested to know the varieties of dictionaries also.

There are mainly four types


1. GENERAL LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES
2. TRANSLATING OR INTER-LINGUAL DICTIONARIES
3. SUBJECT DICTIONARIES
4. SPECIAL PURPOSE DICTIONARIES :
a) PRONOUNCING DICTIONARIES
b) SPELLING DICTIONARIES
c) ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARIES
d) DICTIONARIES OF SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS
e) RHYMING DICTIONARIES
f) DICTIONARIES OF IDIOMS & PHRASES
g) DICTIONARIES OF USAGE :
h) DICTIONARY OF DIFFICULT WORDS
i) DICTIONARIES OF NEW WORDS
j) DICTIONARIES OF OBSOLETE WORDS
k) DIALECT DICTIONARIES
l) DICTIONARIES OF SLANG
m) DICTIONARIES OF NAMES
n) DICTIONARIES OF ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS
o) DICTIONARIES FOR CHILDREN
p) DICTIONARIES FOR CROSSWORD PUZZLERS
q) ENGLISH DICTIONARIES FOR FOREIGHNERS
r) PICTORIAL DICTIONARIES
s) SENTENCE DICTIONARIES
t) DICTIONARY OF QUOTATIONS

What is a dictionary?

Why do we use it ?

Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary has this explanation:
"Dictionary /n./ 1. a reference book containing words usually alphabetically arranged along with information about their forms, pronunciations, functions, etymologies, meanings, and syntactical and idiomatic uses.
2 . a reference book listing alphabetically terms or names important to a particular subject oractivity along with discussion of their meaning and applications.
3. a reference book giving for words of one language equivalents in another.
4 . a list (as of phrase, synonyms, or hyphenation instructions) stored in machine - readable form (as on a disc) for reference by an automatic system ( as for information retrived or computerised type setting)"
We use the dictionary :
1. To find a word in the dictionary by means of the guide words. The defined words are arranged in alphabetical order. Guide words at the top of the page help us to find quickly the word we want . The first guide word is the first defined word on the page; the second guide word is the he last defined word on the page.
2. To find the spelling of a word and of its various forms.
3. To learn how a word should be divided into syllables.
4. To learn how to pronounce the word.
5. To learn the meaning of the word.
6. To learn the parts of speech of the word.
7. To find synonyms, antonyms, homophone, homonyms etc.
8. To find information about people and palces.
9. To find idiomatic usage and contextual usage.
10. To find the definition and etymology.
11. To make use of the information given in Appendix which is usually found at the end.

Did you know this? Well, next time when you open a dictionary try to remember this.
If you go to any book stall you will find a number of dictionaries published by the leading concerns such as OXFORD, CHAMBERS, COLLINS, RAMDOMHOUSE, WEBSTER’S, HEINEMAN, LONGMANS, MACMILLAN, PENGUIN, BBC etc. " Oxford English Learner’s Dictionary" compiled by A.S. Hornby and P.C. Parnwell and " New Oxford Intermediate Learner’s Dictionary" compiled by Miranda Steel are very helpful to students. They are handy and not very expensive.
Recently there are a few dictionary CDs available in the market. Oxford Talking Dictionary, Cambridge English Dictionary - CD and The Cassell Concise Dictionary are very popular. You need a PC to use them. Recently an electronic dictionary is released to the market. It has a small monitor, scanner and memory chip. It looks like a small pen. All you have to do is just place the tip (scanner) of the pen on the chosen word. It will scan it and the monitor will show you the meaning of the word! How wonderful to have such a pen! All the words will be at your finger tips!
Hope such a pen will be gifted to all of us soon! Bye!

Address : Bedre N. Manjunatha, Transmission Executive, All India Radio, CHITRADURGA-577 501.
e-mail: bedre_manjunath@yahoo.co.in

PANGRAM

PANGRAM

Pangram is sentence or other short text using every letter of the alphabet.

Shortest Pangram

(Holoalphabetic Sentence)

Pangrammists who endeavour to produce meaningful sentence of minimal length utilising all the letters in the alphabet have now attained the ultimate of 26 letter brevity. The most intelligible example, with the help of a little punctuation, was devised by Paul Horn of New York, USA and states that

Mr Jock, T.V. quiz PhD, bags few lynx’.

The number of ways 26 letters can be combined is 4.0329 X 1026

Commonest words and letters

Commonest Words and Letters

The most frequently used words in written English are, in descending order of frequency :
the, of, and, to, a, in, that, is, I, it, for and as.
The commonest letter is ‘e’.
More words begin with the letter ‘s’ than any other,
but the most commonly used initial letter is ‘t ’ as in the ‘the’, ‘to’, ‘that’ or ‘there’.

Death of a Scrabble Master

Death of a Scrabble Master


This was the greatest of the game’s great players:
If you played BRAS, he’d make it HUDIBRASTIC.
He ruled a world 15 by 15 squares,
Peopled by 100 loetters, wood or plastic.
He unearthed EBEC, HAJI, useful QAID,
Found QUOS (see pl. of QUID PRO QUO) and QUOTHA,
Discovered AU, DE, DA all unitalicized
(AU JUS, DA CAPO, ALMANACH DE GOTHA).
Two-letter words went marching through his brain,
Spondaic-footed, singing their slow litany:
AL (Indian Mulberry), AI (a sloth), EM, EN
BY, MY, AX, EX, OX, LO, IT, AN, HE ...
PE (Hebrew letter), LI ( aChinese mile), KA, Re,
SH (like NTH, spectacularly vowellness),
AY, OY ( a cry of grief, pain or dismay);
HAI, HI, HO -- leaving opponents powerless.
He, if the tiles before him said DOC TIME,
Would promptly play the elegant DEMOTIC,
And none but the fulfilled the scrabbler’s dream,
When, through two triple words, he hung QUIXOTIC.
The day his adversary put down GNASHED,
He laid -- a virtuoso feat -- beneath it GOUTIER,
So placed, that six more tiny words were hatched :
GO, NU, AT, SI, then (as you’ve seen, no doubt) HE, ER.
-- Clement Wood

Important Abbreviations


Important Abbreviations


1) Title before name

Kumari ...............................Kum.

Srimati ...............................Smt.

Mister ...............................Mr.

Mistress ...............................Mrs.

Doctor ...............................Dr.

Captain ...............................Capt.

Professor ...............................Prof.

Messieurs ...............................Messrs. / M/setc.

2) Degree after names

Doctor of Philosophy ...............................Ph.D.,

Doctor of Medicine ...............................M.D.,

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery ......M.B.,B.S.,Bachelor of Engineering ...............................B.E.,

Bachelor of Education ...............................B.Ed.,

Bachelor of Science ...............................B.Sc.,

Bachelor of Commerce ...............................B.Com.,

Bachelor of Arts ...............................B.A.,

Bachelor of Law ...............................LL.B.,

Bachelor of Physical Education .............................B.P.Ed.,

Master of Arts ...............................M.A.,

Master of Science ...............................M.Sc.,

Master of Commerce ...............................M.Com.,

Master of Business Administration ...............................M.B.A.,etc.

3) Days

Sunday ...............................Sun.

Monday ...............................Mon.

Tuesday ...............................Tue.

Wednesday ...............................Wed.

Thursday ...............................Thurs.

Friday ...............................Fri.

Saturday ...............................Sat.

4) Months

January ...............................Jan.

February ...............................Feb.

August ...............................Aug.

September ...............................Sept.

October ...............................Oct.

November ...............................Nov.

December ...............................Dec.

March, April, May, June, July are not abbriviated.

5) Measurements

LENGTH

milimetre ...............................mm

centimetre ...............................cm

decimetre ...............................dm

metre ...............................m

dekametre ...............................dkm

hectometre ...............................hm

kilometre ...............................km ........etc

CAPACITY

millilitre ...............................ml

centilitre ...............................cl

decilitre ...............................dl

litre ...............................l

dekalitre ...............................dkl

hectolitre ...............................hl

kilolitre ...............................kl...........etc.

WEIGHT

milligram ...............................mg

centigram ...............................cg

decigram ...............................dg

gram ...............................gm

dekagram ...............................dkg

hectogram ...............................hg

kilogram ...............................kg..........etc


Some other Important Abbriviations


Alternating current ...............................a.c.

Account ...............................acc.

Anno Domini (in the year of our Lord) ...............................A.D.

Advertisement ...............................ad.

Ante Meridiem (before noon) ...............................a.m.

Before (the birth of Jesus) Christ ...............................B.C.

Centigrade ...............................C., Cent.

Cash to be paid on delivery ...............................C.O.D.

Creditor ...............................Cr.

Direct current ...............................d.c.

Dozen ...............................doz.

Dram ...............................dr.

Errors and omissions excepted ..........................E.& O.E.

Editor, edited by ...............................ed.

Exempli gratis (for example) ...............................e.g.

Et cetera ( and other things and so on) ...............................etc.

Fahrenheit ...............................F. , Fahr.

Free on board ( commercial use) ...............................f.o.b.

Foot, Feet ...............................ft.

Gallon (s) ...............................gal.

Honorary; The Honourable ...............................Hon.

Horse power; hire purchse ...............................h.p.

Hour (s) ...............................hr (s).

Ibidem ( in the same place) ...............................ibid.

Incharge of ...............................ic.

Id est (that is) ...............................i.e.

Inch (es) ...............................in.

Italic (type) ...............................it., ital.

Kilowatt ...............................Kw.

Libra (pounds in weight) ...............................lb.

Miscellaneous ...............................misc.

Manuscript (s) ...............................Ms., Mss.

Nota bene ( note carefully) ...............................N.B.

All correct, agreed ...............................O.K.

Ounce ...............................oz.

Per Annum ...............................p.a.

Per Procurationem (by proxy) ...............................per pro.

Post meridiem (afternoon) ...............................p.m.

Pages ...............................pp

Pro tempore (for the time) ...............................pro tem.

Respondez S’l vous plait (please reply) ...............................R.S.V.P.

Videlicet (namely) ...............................viz.

Water closet ...............................w.c.

Yard ...............................yd.